Greek Grammar Basics



  • Present - Continuous action in present time (Not yet completed)

  • Imperfect - Continuous action in past time

  • Perfect - Actions completed but the results continued (Linear and Punctiliar)

  • Aorist - Point in time, Continuous, or Continuance of completed action

    • Constative:  views the action as a whole
    • Ingressive:  beginning of an action or entrance into a state
    • Culminative:  views the entirety of the verb with special emphasis on the results
    • Gnomic:  Absolute or axiomatic statement of fact
    • Dramatic:  Present reality with the certitude of a past event
    • Epistolary: Writer conveys the idea as the reader in the future would view it
  • Future -Foretells a future event (context determines kind of action)

Tense denotes time (past, present, future) and kind (continuing, completed, or simple) of action.

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